Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Emily dickinson 4 "Best Things dwell out of Sight"(#998) describes one of America's greatest poets. She dwelled out of sight for most of her life and her poems, with the exception of seven published anonymously, remained out of sight until well after her death. Many literary scholars have attempted a biography on this mysterious woman and poet and yet none are conclusive. Dickinson remains an enigma even today but biographical speculation allows us to analyze some of her poetry even though we may be completely inaccurate about what we presuppose.There are some facts about Emily Elizabeth Dickinson that we know for certain. She was born on December 10, 1830 and is recognized as one of America's greatest poets. She had an older brother, William Austin Dickinson, born on April 16, 1829, and a younger sister, Lavinia Norcross Dickinson, born on February 28, 1833. She was raised in Amherst, Massachusetts, which was a small and tradition-bound town in the nineteenth century.Angie DickinsonEmily's father, Ed ward Dickinson, was a grand figure in Amherst. In his letters, he comes across as a remarkably ambitious man-"a typical success-oriented, work-oriented citizen of expansionist America," in Richard Sewall's characterization. Educated at Amherst College and Yale, he soon became the leading lawyer in town. For thirty-seven years he was the treasurer of the college that his father helped establish in 1821. Besides this, Edward had accomplished much success in his life but biographers of Emily's life believe that he paid for his public success through his emotional destitution. Emily's father was a rigorous Calvinist and dominated the Dickinson family. His concept of life was rigid religious observance and obedience to God's law as stated in the Bible. He prompted his children to read the Bible and attend church every Sunday. People who knew the Dickinsons referred to Edward as...
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Doing Business in Russia - Assignment Example Not since the days of Peter the Great has Russia seen such limitless potential for businesses seeking to gain opportunities; however, this is not to say that entering Russian markets is an easy, or that success is a foregone conclusion. Being able to properly discuss doing business in Russia first requires an understanding of the Russian business environment, which is one that is highly unique given the massive political, social, and economic changes the nation has undergone as a result of the shift away from Communism. Especially in the cities of the nation, there has emerged a significant population of consumers who are eager to experience products from other parts of the world. This is made especially relevant due to the fact that the nation has likewise undergone an economic resurgence and a cultural renaissance. All of these factors have made Russia more attractive to potential investors who appear to be impressed by what is taking place within Russia itself. This is not to say, however, that carte blanche business involvement in Russia is a possibility for every company wishing to do so. Rather, there are important concepts for companies to understand before getting involved in Russia (Bergman, et al, nd).: Collectivism- Dating back to the days when Russian peasants gathered together for the purposes of farming and producing goods together, collectivism still exists in Russia to a large extent, creating a sort of group mindset for consumers, posing a particular challenge for businesses entering the Russian business sector. Egalitarianism- What is meant by egalitarianism in this context is yet another concept dating back to the communist days of Russia, when the removal of inequality was endorsed in favor of an equal distribution of all that society had to offer, which usually leads to traditional Russian business negotiations being considered as a group effort, with all sharing in the benefits of the particular business operations. Dusha- This is a somewhat mysterious force within Russian society, referring to the collective spirit and belief sets of the Russian people. However, for anyone doing business in Russia, a fundamental understanding of this concept is extremely critical. It must also be understood that, as a note of caution, there were previous attempts to open up Russian borders to outside business interests, which was essentially thwarted by the inability of the government under Mikhail Gorbachev to remedy issues of business productivity, product availability, personnel and marketing (Owen, 1995) although admittedly, these problems most likely occurred because this Russian business effort was an internal, homegrown effort which did not make a lot of sense given the inherent lack of business acumen of the level that a recently opened economy like that of Russia would demand. A Rising Opportunity: Russia's Oil Market When thinking of the most readily available and productive oil fields in the world, images of the riches and potential of the Middle East typically come to mind; however, what many fail to realize is the past of Russia's oil industry, as well as its fascinatingly lucrative potential for the future. Following suit of other Russian businesses over the years, the Russian oil industry has risen to impressive heights
Friday, February 7, 2020
The Individual American Experience - Essay Example Ortiz expounds on the influence of language in forming one's identity in an essay called "The Language We Know." In it, he counters the notion that English is only unifying factor in the American Experience. Ortiz was raised in an Acoma-speaking family. The power of these years upon his creative self-concept is clear. Ultimately; he defines "American" as some permutation of pretense and dispossession. He recalls his father's skill as stoneworker with sandstone and mud to build pueblos - the time, persistence, patience, and the belief that the walls might stand forever (188). He believed working with his father influences his writing (189). Both are methods of continuity. Both are ways in which a people may hold near to themselves (187). Although writing is his profession, building is always his trade. McBride challenges common and popular notions of insular identities based on simplified racial categories in his book called The Color of Water: a Black Man's Tribute to His White Mother. He counters the notion that racial difference is the defining factor in the African American experience. His dominant narrative is that of self-discovery through the rediscovery of ancestry. Ultimately; he defines "American" as a combination of eclecticism and hardship. This book is written uniquely. Chapter by chapter, it toggles between his mother's experiences of growing up in America with his own. His mother details the strict rules of Orthodox Judaism and how they affected her (16). Although his mother is white, she lives in a black world and refuses to acknowledge her whiteness (37). James lives in a home of "orchestrated chaos" (66). He sees his house as a combination three-ring circus and zoo. He describes some of his siblings - his sister Helen, the rebel; Rosetta, the resident queen of th e house; his brother Dennis, the civil rights activist and artist with aspirations of becoming a doctor. The whites at his mother Ruth's school hated Jews, and in public, James becomes ashamed of his white mother (98). 1n 1941, Ruth's Bubeh died. Ruth decided to return to New York (155). Her father tried to get her to stay; she refused. He told her that if she married a black man, she could never come home again. In 1992, while standing in front of a synagogue in Suffolk, James acknowledges his own connection to the synagogue and to Judaism (189). Abu-Jaber reveals tensions between American and Jordanian cultures in a work called The Language of Baklava: a Memoir. In it, she counters the notion that one Americanizes in some sterile standardized way. For example, her father learns to hail strangers greeting men and women alike with the same greeting: "Hey, bud!" As such, she I grows up thinking of all Americans as Bud (34). Abu-Jaber tells the story of growing up in upstate New York with periodic transplants to Jordan. Her dominant narrative seems to be stories of being raised by a food-loving Jordanian father and Bedouin tents. She completes her work with recipes illuminating American and Jordanian and painting the complex portrait of her displaced father who cooked as a method of continuing the past with the present. Ultimately; she defines "American" as being like her father's relationship with food. His daughters knowing how to feed themselves and others in ways that help define them as people. Drawing from my own personal
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Improving Patient Safety by Utilizing Information Technology Essay As the push towards patient safety increases with regulatory agencies such as the Florida Agency for Healthcare administration (ACHA) and The Joint Commission (TJC), formerly the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), highlighting the need for higher qualities of standard, hospitals such as Memorial Hospital Pembroke in Hollywood Florida are interested in finding ways of achieving optimal patient care standards and propel themselves up the list of top performers on key quality measures. Of equal importance is the need to optimize the cost effectiveness of this quality of care by reducing length of hospital stay and reducing instances of readmissions for the same or related complaints. Individual department such as pharmacy, radiology and laboratory each have computerized systems specifically aimed at task completion within the department taking no thought of the dissemination of that information across the spectrum of not only medical departments but also to administrative and clerical departments. With the advent of care possesses such as computer physician order entry(CPOE) and electronic medication administration record systems(EMARs) aimed at both quality and cost effectiveness the necessity exist to provide all needed information including medical records, radiological imagery such as CT scans, MRIs, and laboratory results at the immediate disposal of the practitioner. Administrative departments such as billing, medical records, medical supplies, and social services requiring real time updates on care administered, supplies expended in administering this care and follow up required in order to complete the continuum of care. There is therefore the need to integrate all these various clinical and administrative processes into a single efficient hospital based system of delivery of care. Electronic Health Record systems (EHRs) are not only designed to provide such services but also information to patients and stores and manages data collected on patients. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 provided $34 billion via Medicare and Medicaid for the implementation and use of EHRs. Two such systems EpicCare and HCS eMR respectively define themselves as follows. Ã¢â¬Å"The EpicCare Inpatient Clinical System spans all hospital departments and specialties, giving providers the tools they need to deliver safe, high-quality care. EpicCares role-based navigators simplify relevant information access for physicians, nurses, therapists, dietitians and any other provider in the hospital settingÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"HCS eMR meaningful use software is a Workflow Driven / Focused solution focused on high User Adoption. HCS eMR works for your hospital because it: Builds on existing processes such as Medication Reconciliation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Integrates with existing technology to streamline processes Ã¢â¬ ¢ Leverages sophisticated rules and timely alerts to drive success Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can be implemented quickly and is fully adopted Ã¢â¬ ¢ Is economical Ã¢â¬Å" Organizational and individual barriers to proposed change Several potential barriers exist to the implementation of an integrated electronic health records system (EHRs), these include structural, financial/business, technical/professional, and cultural. Structural Memorial Hospital Pembroke is not a standalone hospital rather it is one of five hospitals in the Memorial Hospital System (MHS) formerly known as the South Broward Hospital district of Florida, as such much consideration has to be given to the eventual implementation across the system not only to Pembroke itself. Diversity in buyers and payers of supplies and services across the system would impact heavily on integration. There are also different providers of information technology in various departments that would have to be modified to enable integration via a central system of informatics. Financial and business The infrastructural implementation of EHR systems requires initial high dollar investment which in the current economic environment may require budgetary restraints on other services and supplies. Although the intent is clear and the potential promising, there is limited evidence of the economic benefits of EHR systems in healthcare mainly because it is in its infancy, the hospital board of governors may require extensive due diligence studies prior agreeing to any such change. Cultural The cost-benefits across the continuum of providers e. g. octors, nurses and recipients e. g. patients of healthcare have yet to be realized and as such much caution and resistance is to be anticipated. Clinicians inclusive of nurses envision health informatics particularly EHRs as being time consuming and takes away from, autonomy, actual time spent with patients, also old habits are hard to break, and question what personal benefits are to be gain from this intrusive system. Not to be ignored is the additional scrutiny as all processes will be documented at time of process and provides a permanent record, errors cannot be deleted. Departments who previously had autonomy on how information is transferred and disseminated from the individual department to other practitioners may show reluctance to Ã¢â¬Å"opening upÃ¢â¬ to the scrutiny of others. Patients also will be required to accommodate intrusion, as with the availability of previously restricted information at the bedside from computers on wheels (COWs) more time may be spent at the bedside by practitioners instead of doing time consuming reviews and making notes prior to patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ rounds. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) which provides federally regulated protection of patients health information held by healthcare professionals, is another possible barrier that impact the implementation of the proposed change, and care has to be taken to limit the unnecessary access of patientÃ¢â¬â¢s data. Factors influencing proposed change Important factors that may affect whether implementation of an EHR at Memorial Pembroke is employed include, how receptive management and staff are to the change, the existence of available EHR systems providers versus in-house creation of a system, Cost of purchasing, implementing and maintaining a system and if funding is available, real benefits to be attained, are they measurable, and structural, cultural and financial readiness of the organization for the change. Receptiveness of management and staff If the existing system works for staff or is perceived to work then many questions arise among the participants why does there need to be this intrusive change. Can the proposed benefits to be realized justify the overhaul and inconvenience to come and am I going to be remunerated for my efforts? Available EHR systems There are many systems already on the market including EPICare inpatient-core; HCS eMR and ChartAcess which are ready for implementation have a system of support and maintenance. Although these are expensive systems, to build an in-house system replicating these would be time consuming and require extensive developmental processes that would certainly result in delay in implementing such a system. Cost May be divided into acquisition and maintenance, acquisition cost include cost of software, training, installation, paper to electronic conversion and implementation productivity loss, which may not be measurable. Maintenance cost includes upgrades, replacement of hardware and internal and external support cost. Acquisition cost will be significant and may impact on the ability of the organization to meet other budgetary demands. Maintenance cost are spread out over time and may not be as impacting, also the possibility exist that cost savings from the use of the EHRs employed may offset maintenance cost. Factors influencing organizational readiness There are certain basic requirements of readiness which Memorial Pembroke must meet in order to be ready for health IT without which failure is almost assured. These are Organizational culture, Management and leadership, Operational and Technical readiness. Organizational culture defined as an assessment of how the organization perceives EHR, general staff and physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ perceptions and patient involvement. Does Memorial Pembroke view EHR as a liability or as an asset, is the staff open to what is better for the patient or are they more concerned about turf protection, are nurses prepared to record even the most minor detail if it means a better overall picture of the state of the patient. Management and leadership Ã¢â¬â does the organization have the management that appreciates the importance of the change to the overall goals of the organization and is there a readiness to apply necessary resources to include human resources, financial resources and information and to manage these resources not only for current but also future EHR needs. Is there an executive team, a strategic plan, quality improvement and care management, and sound financial management? Operational readiness Ã¢â¬â takes into consideration, protocols, operational procedures, staffing needs for the implementation, training plans and programs, preparedness of project managers and IT staff for the implementation. Technical readinessÃ¢â¬â considers the organizations technical environment and information technology capabilities to deal with and absorb the change. Is there adequate server capacity, a rational process of procurement also potential for growth and development of the department? In short can they handle it? Theoretical model related to proposed change The model best related to this organizational change which seeks to enhance the institution as a whole in the furtherance of improved quality of care for patients as also to optimize the organizations ability to be effective in the administrative process and other peripheral processes involved in this change is organizational development. Organizational change targets the entire organization and creates a climate of open discussion with valued feedback which helps to reinforce or modify to the change. It depends on the utilization of process consultants to facilitate interventions and to manage the change. Internal and external resources to support change Within the organization several resources may be found which may facilitate or enhance the change to be implemented, these include competent senior management who portray a sense of confidence and facilitate dialogue with staff thus enabling them to be active participants, a strong human resource department that arranges and implement training programs aimed at preparing staff for the change. A vibrant IT department with competent personnel knowledgeable in IT systems that can facilitate incorporation of new technology to its network. Staff that are trainable and who understand the dynamism of the organization and of change and are willing to adapt in order to meet organizational goals. Externally advantage has to be taken of a proven provider of EHRs that has the experience and support infrastructure that will facilitate attainment of the organizational goals. Independent consultants who are experienced in the change to be implemented, and who are able to monitor and manage the change at each stage of implementation. Research data that provide information aimed at making informed decisions, provided by research specialist and not ad hoc pieces of information.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The belief and concept of dishonor in the Greek and Colombian culture of Ã¢â¬ËAntigone,Ã¢â¬â¢ by Sophocles, and Ã¢â¬ËChronicle of a Death Foretold,Ã¢â¬â¢ by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, is a deciding aspect that blinds characters moral values. It is evident that in both societies Greek and Colombian, a family or an individual without honor is an outcast to the community. As honor plays a drastic role in outlining the culture of the society. Therefore the belief that a perpetrator has brought dishonor upon the family, or community foreshadows punishment for the individual, often conveyed through death. Sophocles provides a setting in his play, Antigone, where the honor code of rules and principles that govern the Greek community, are based upon CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s patriarchy of immoral natural law. Where the worst death is a Ã¢â¬ËcloudedÃ¢â¬â¢ (97) one whose foggy setting brings dishonor upon the individual, and his family. Polynecies is an example; Sophocles uses to highlight the significance of a burial, in the Greek society. Polynecies is a victim of Creon's code of honor, which through grotesque diction, Sophocles describes his body as being immorally exposed the Ã¢â¬Å"vulturesÃ¢â¬ left Ã¢â¬Å"unwept and unburiedÃ¢â¬â¢ (29) after miserably fighting turning against his brother in a battle for Thebes, in which he turned against him. Causing him to Ã¢â¬â¢[die] outside the lawÃ¢â¬â¢ (59) bringing great dishonor to the corpse as it is with a lack of respect, left unburied due to tyranny, but also damns it for all time and dishonors his family. CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s laws are flaw, harsh and immoral, they take on the Ã¢â¬Ëgods who live foreverÃ¢â¬â¢ (788), up to the point were his actions Ã¢â¬Ëseize [his] good mind,Ã¢â¬â¢ (791) and deprive him of moral thought. CreonÃ¢â¬â¢s restrictive democracy motivates PolynecieÃ¢â¬â¢s sister Antigone, who... ...reshadow a death through the blinding process of moral values and actions taken by an individual that has, or whose family has been dishonored and wishes to regain their dignity. Sophocles in Antigone portrays the theme of dishonor through the cultural value of burial in the Greek society; Gabriel Garcia Marquez on the other hand, condemns the legate of marriage to honor in Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Both cultural norms manage in context to inflict with the characterÃ¢â¬â¢s family honor, which leads them into taking immoral and ruthless actions that lead to the innocent death of Antigone and Santiago Nasser, both innocent individuals. Works Cited GarcÃ a, MÃ ¡rquez Gabriel, and Gregory Rabassa. Chronicle of a Death Foretold: A Novel. New York: Vintage International, 2003. Print Sophocles, and Paul Woodruff. Antigone. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub., 2001. Print
Sunday, January 12, 2020
China's Export Strategy: What Can We Learn From It? Arvind Panagariya As much as by luck as by design, China stumbled onto an export and foreign investment strategy that has proved remarkably successful, helping the economy move quickly to a market-based system. experience serve as a model for other countries? But can the Chinese After three decades of inward-oriented trade and foreign investment policies, in 1979, China switched course and launched an Ã¢â¬Å"open-doorÃ¢â¬ policy. During the 15 years that have elapsed since then, the country has ersistently, albeit gradually, liberalized its trade and foreign investment regime. This has been accompanied by a spectacular growth in GDP and During 1980-90, GDP grew annually at an impressive rate of Over the same period, exports grew at an annual rate of 11 foreign trade. 9. 5 percent. percentÃ¢â¬âmore than twice as fast as world tradeÃ¢â¬âand imports 9. 8 percent. More recently, in 1992 and 1993, GDP has shown annual growth rat es exceeding 13 percent. The annual growth in exports and imports during these two years has been 13 percent and 27 percent, respectively. What are the key trade and foreign investment policies that have led to this dramatic growth in China's foreign trade and GDP? And what lessons can we derive from China's experience for other economies in transition? (see box)? In the following, we examine the nature of reforms and why they worked well or poorly in particular cases. Though this study focuses on external economic policies, it is important to remember that the promotion of non-state enterprises has closely complemented China's outward-oriented Ã¢â¬â 2 strategy. These enterprises, owned collectively by local authorities in urban areas, townships or villages, enjoy a high degree of autonomy in their operations. Consequently, they have been most successful in taking advantage of the outward-oriented strategy. Promoting an Ã¢â¬Å"export cultureÃ¢â¬ On the external front, three factors combined to give rise to China's success: adoption of an aggressive pro-export strategy by central authorities, active participation of local authorities and the presence of Hong Kong and Taiwanese investors looking for a source of cheap labor. With he beginning of the open-door policy, the central authorities began sending clear signals in favor of an export-oriented trade regime. A variety of instruments were employed to promote what may be called an Ã¢â¬Å"export cultureÃ¢â¬ : geographical targeting, sectoral targeting, a liberal foreign investment regime, and liberal provision of export financing. Geographical targeting. China set up the so-called Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and Open Cities within which economic activitiesÃ¢â¬â manufacturing, banking, exporting and importing, and foreign investment-took place in a more liberal environment than is available in the rest of the economy. These zones helped to serve as focal points for investment from both domestic and foreign sources and to allow China to develop links with the world market, brought in part, by Hong Kong and Taiwanese entrepreneurs. Originally there were only a handful of such zones, all in Guangdong and Fujian provinces. Over time, many features of SEZs were extended to other cities. Two features of SEZs distinguish them from the rest of the country. First, the SEZs enjoy considerable administrative autonomy in the Ã¢â¬â 3 areas of investment, pricing, taxation, housing, and labor and land management policies. require virtually no Most foreign investments can be approved locally and central clearance. Second, the SEZs offer many The economic incentives to investors not available in the inland provinces. corporate income tax, normally 33 percent for foreign funded enterprises and 55 percent for state owned enterprises, is 15 percent for all enterprises in the SEZs. All imported inputs used in exports or sold within the Zones are In addition, tax holidays free of import duty and other indirect taxes. available to foreign funded enterprises are more generous in the SEZs than those available under the national tax legislation. Depending on the amount of investment, nature of the technology, and duration of the project, tax holidays of up to five years are available. The SEZs and open cities exhibited spectacular economic performance. In 1979, the three SEZs in Guangdong were small fishing villages with virtually no industrial activity. transformed into modern cities. By the end of 1980s, they had been In 1990, the SEZs and open cities accounted for 52% of total realized investment and more than half of total exports. During 1985-90, industrial output in Guangdong and Fujian grew at annual rates of 16% and 14. % compared with 6. 9% in the rest of the economy. Sectoral targeting. Side by side with geographical targeting, China has also engaged in sectoral targeting for exports. Targeted sectors, chosen at a broad level, have included light industrial products, textiles, and machinery and electronic goods. The most important instruments of targeting were production networks for exports (PNEs) and higher excha nge retention rights to targeted sectors. Ã¢â¬â 4 The Seventh Five Year Plan (1986-90) provided for the creation of PNEs. The idea was to bring the leading factories within the targeted ector into a network and support them through subsidies for technological upgrading, guaranteed supplies of raw materials and power, preferential access to transportation, attractive purchase prices for their goods, and higher exchange-retention rights than other enterprises in the same industry. The aim of the networks was to expand both the quailty and quantity of exports of the participating factories. The first industry group to benefit from this scheme was machinery and electronic goods. PNEs have also been created in light industrial products and textiles, and farm and sideline products. Rights to foreign exchange generated by exports are shared between the central and provincial governments. For targeted sectors, the allocation of retention rights was more favorable to the province and the foreign trade corporations (FTCs), which procure and export more than 80 percent of China's exports. In the case of light industries, arts & craft, and knitwear, foreign exchange was divided in the ratio of 20:80 between the center and province. Similarly, in machinery and electronic goods, for within-quota exports, the split between the center and provinces was 35:65. Though the retention rights have been revised recently, the bias in favor of FTCs has been retained. From the available data, it is difficult to judge the impact of sectoral targeting primarily because it was broad based. textiles and light industrial products in total exports The share of did expand significantly after 1985. But the effect on machinery sector is less clear. Ã¢â¬â 5 Overall, one thing which is clear, however, is that the export share of labor intensive sector has gone up in the latter half of 1980s. export shares of heavy and light industries were 47. % In 1982, 37. 6%, and respectively, in 1982. 52. 9%. By 1989, these shares had changed to 31. 9% and Liberal foreign investment regime. China's striking export performance is related to the size of foreign direct investment flows into the country (see table). Foreign investors have been lured to the Chinese market for three reasons. First, both policies and procedures have been designed to facilitate foreign investm ent. A 25 percent foreign investment gives an enterprise the At status of a joint venture and qualifies it for various tax incentives. he same time, foreign equity investment can rise all the way up to 100 percent. Restrictions on the choice of sectors are minimal; any preferences, sectoral or otherwise, take the form of extra incentives. As a result, joint ventures have been established in sectors ranging from hightechnology to consumer goods, services, and raw materials. lower or upper limit on the amount of foreign investment. There is no In large open cities such as Shanghai, foreign investment projects up to $30 million can be approved by local authorities. The limit in smaller open cities is $10 This autonomy has illion while that in unopened cities is $3 million. greatly simplified the approval procedures. Second, employment, wage and pricing policies for joint ventures are flexible. contractual Joint ventures are free to employ any required personnel on a basis. Employees ar e subject to warnings, wage cuts and Ã¢â¬â 6 dismissal. Except for a few product categories for which prices are set by the state, joint ventures are free to set their prices both domestically and abroad. Products or services for which prices are fixed are of two types. In the first category, prices are completely fixed (e. . , products such as grain, oil, and fuel; and services such as electricity and rent). In the second category, prices are allowed to fluctuate within prespecified bands usually ranging from 10 to 30 percent (e. g. , steel, cement, timber, coal and other major capital goods). Finally, China has given extra incentives to joint ventures. As already discussed, these incentives are particularly generous in the SEZs and open cities. Since 1986, additional preferential treatment has been The available to export-oriented or technologically advanced projects. ncentives include: o Exemption from state subsidies paid to employees to cover the benefits provided by the gov ernment of China; o Priority in obtaining Bank of China loans; o Tax exemption on profits remitted abroad; o Longer tax holidays from corporate income tax; o Extra tax benefits on profits reinvested in export-oriented or technologically advanced projects; and o Further reduced land-use fees, priority in obtaining utilities, transport, and communication facilities. Duty exemptions. China has also instituted an elaborate system of Under these schemes, uty exemptions on imported inputs used in exports. the concessional share of imports was 35 percent in 1988 and rose to 50 Ã¢â¬â 7 percent in 1991. played an The schemes, introduced in 1984 or later, seem to have role in expanding China's exports. Total exports important associated with concessional import arrangements account for 64 percent of China's manufactured exports. These exports doubled between 1988 and 1991. The domestic value added of these exports is, of course, lower than of other exports. Export financing. Ready access t o export credits is believed to ontribute favorably to export performance. The Bank of China, which is the primary bank dealing in foreign exchange, provides trade credits. Credit, offered in domestic currency, is available for working capital as well as fixed investment for the production of exports and import substitutes. main beneficiaries of these credits are FTCs. of total trade credits in 1991. The They accounted for 85 percent The Bank of China also offers loans in terms of foreign exchange, primarily to enterprises in which foreigners have invested, for working capital and fixed investment. Though contributing favorably to exports, the liberal credit policy has led to a rapid expansion of outstanding loans. The total volume of outstanding trade loans at the end of 1991 was more than three time that at the end of 1985. In part, this expansion was due to the growth of exports. But perhaps it also reflects a rising ratio of export credit to total exports. According to one calculation, this ratio was 150 percent in 1988. The Hong Kong connection A key element in China's success in the world markets so-called Ã¢â¬Å"Hong Kong connectionÃ¢â¬ . as been the In the mid-1980s, Hong Kong entrepreneurs began shifting manufacturing facilities to China, attracted by lower labor Ã¢â¬â 8 costs as wages rose rapidly at home. This link with Hong Kong has not only brought much needed capital to China but also supplied new technology, modern management practices and critical links to the world market. Today more than half of China's exports to the rest of the world are handled by Hong Kong. Of the $45 billion in cumulative foreign investment commitments to China through 1992, 70 percent came from Hong Kong. This investment went mainly to export-oriented joint ventures. A large proportion of Guangdong's export production is supervised under contract by firms in Hong Kong. Processing activity for exports in Guangdong is also carried out largely in collaboration with partners in Hong Kong who supply materials. Many items, particularly in the toy and clothing sectors, which were previously exported by Hong Kong are now exported by Guangdong. Local policies China's economic system is highly decentralized now and the implementation of policy is largely under the control of provinces. Hence, in the fast-growing provinces, provincial and local officials have been deeply involved in the development process in general and export promotion in particular. The role of local authorities in facilitating foreign investment has been described earlier. In addition, there are a number of ways in which local authorities promote exports. First, the center gives mandatory targets or export quotas for only a limited number of items or in limited volumes. But in some provinces, for Moreover, example Jiangsu, the export-quota-system is far more elaborate. aking advantage of their monopsony power, FTCs are able to buy goods from enterprises at prices well below the corresponding domestic prices. Though Ã¢â¬â 9 the economic desirability of Ã¢â¬Å"exports at any costÃ¢â¬ has been questioned, the FTCs have certainly been able to operate profitably on account of the monopsony power. Second, operating within the center's guidelines, provincial authorities have been expanding Direct Export Rights (DERs) to enterprises. Because the criteria for obtaining such rights are stringent, the DERs have not expanded as rapidly as would have been desirable, however. ith DERs account for only 5% of China's exports. Third, within the State's guidelines, provincial and city governments decide the allocation of raw materials imported by using locally retained foreign exchange earnings among enterprises, collectives and TVEs and across different sectors. Provinces and cities also provide indirect export Enterprises subsidies through the provision of critical inputs such as electric power to export oriented enterprises. higher bonuses for Further incentives are provided in the form of and employees on the basis of export managers erformance. Within the guidelines laid down by the State, provinces can confer rights to trade directly upon enterprises and enterprise groups. Finally, local authorities establish joint ventures between FTCs and enterprises to promote exports. establ ished 160 of these ventures. establish another 200 such ventures. The central lesson Perhaps the most important lesson, also consistent with the experience of other East Asian countries such as Korea, Taiwan Province of China, During the Seventh Plan, Wuxi City alone In the Eighth Plan, the city intended to 10 Singapore and now Thailand, is that the key to high GDP growth rates is export orientation and eventual success in the world market. The success in export expansion, in turn, depends on the policy package, which conveys a message in no uncertain terms that, rather than shelter import competing industries, the country will give priority to export oriented activities. China benefitted greatly from the clarity of signals sent by its policy reforms. Once the reform process began, there was rarely any doubt Despite occasional policy reversals, provincial and about its direction. ity governments, which implemented policies and enterprises, both state and nonstate, were convinced tha t the country was headed towards an export oriented regime. geographical In terms of static efficiency, virtually all policies-preferential treatment of foreign investment in targeting, general and in export sectors in particular, and discriminatory exchange retention rightsÃ¢â¬âwere highly distortionary. Yet, they combined to give a loud and clear signal that the government was determined to change the economy's orientation away from import substitution to export promotion. Ã¢â¬â 11 Ã¢â¬â Box Can India benefit from China's experience? Operationally, the Chinese model is not very applicable to the economies of Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. These countries have largely rejected the planning model, which has remained an integral part of the Chinese development strategy. The countries in Eastern Europe The have already evolved far closer to the market model than China. countries emerging out of the former Soviet Union, on the other hand, are still struggling with the problem of macroeconomic stabilization. The country for which the Chinese experience is most relevant is India. Both are highly populous and, by developing-country standards, large economies. They began their development process approximately at the same time and stressed self-reliance. Both relied increasingly heavily on import substitution policies and ended up with a highly capital intensive production structure. China changed course in 1979 while India continued (with modest liberalization) on the old course. In 1991, in many ways, India stood where China stood in 1979. China's in 1979. Import and The trade-to-GDP ratio was the same as controls were rampant and the investment domestic currency was overvalued. Despite these similarities, even in India's case, lessons from China are limited. In addition to the obvious differences in political systems which lead to very different political-economy processes in the two countries, there are three reasons for this. has been highly interventionist. been in China and elsewhere in First, the Chinese approach This approach can be successfulÃ¢â¬âas it has East AsiaÃ¢â¬âprovided the government can Ã¢â¬â 12 implement Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ interventions judiciously. India's experience during the Second, India's last four decades in this respect has not been encouraging. conomy has already evolved far closer to a market economy than that of China. have For instance, export targets and foreign exchange contracts, which helped create a pro-exports ethos in China are neither arguably desirable nor feasible in India. greater role in India than in China. Similarly, private sector plays a far Finally, India has already carried out For example, in the a rea of many reforms that China is still contemplating. exchange rate, China has a multiple exchange rate system and its exchange market is not organized along the lines of market economies. India has chieved virtual current account convertibility and its foreign exchange market is organized along modern lines. Of the lessons that have general relevance to India, the following points would seem to be the most pertinent. o First, creating a liberal and flexible economic environment along the lines of SEZs in China would stimulate greater foreign investment. The country can begin with a small number of citiesÃ¢â¬âe. g. , Bombay, Bangalore, Cochin, and MadrasÃ¢â¬âand, as in China, local governments may be given full authority to approve foreign investment up to a certain limit. Most important, rules of entry and exit in the zones can be made more flexible. Because these zones will be introduced in limited areas with a high growth potential, political consensus may be easier, even if this requires new legislation. Eventual success in the open zones may open the way for Currently, India does have export political consensus on a wider scale. processing zones. But the geographical area over which such zones operate Ã¢â¬â 13 is far too limited to allow for the full play of liberal policies and make them focal points of investment activity. Second, provision of infrastructure facilities through active In participation of local authorities in the reform process is critical. the fast growing provinces in China, local authoritiesÃ¢â¬âespecially mayors of the citiesÃ¢â¬âhave been deeply involved in the process of development. They try to ensure that investors get speedy clearance with respect to land use, supply of electricity, water and other facilities. In India, so far, it seems that the enthusiasm for reforms has not filtered to state governments and the center may well have to take a lead in this regard, offering both carrot and stick. All incentives and reforms at the central level can be rendered ineffective if the state and local authorities, which must provide land, power, communications facilities, and environmental clearance, do not cooperate. There is an urgent need to study caefully how such bottlenecks can be removed. o Third, there is a need for a shift in the production structure towards more labor intensive industries. The share of capital goods imports in total imports is rather small in India when compared with China and other fast-growing countries in East Asia. This, combined with the fact that India's import-to-GDP ratio is small, suggests that India is far more deeply into the production of capital goods than China and other comparator countries. In late 1970s and early 1980s, China also suffered from this problem and adopted policies to change the structure of production in favor of labor intensive goods. An important part of this strategy was targeting of a few Ã¢â¬â 14 sectors, especially for exports. this route. For India, it is perhaps unwise to follow Given the country's generally neutral and rules-based approach to reforms, it is perhaps best to rely on the standard trade policy tools, particularly the structure of tariffs. Recent reduction in tariffs on capital goods should help move the economy towards more labor intensive goods. What is needed is resistance to policies that reverse the impact of this policy change. In particular, there is need for labor-market reforms. The country will not be able to take advantage of low wages of skilled and unskilled labor unless potential investors are sure that they can operate factories around the year without fears of recurrent labor disputes. This fear has been behind the highly capital intensive technologies chosen by investors in recent years. Fourth, duty exemptions for assembly type operations combined with rapid processing of imported inputs and materials by customs authorities made a significant contribution to China's export growth. In India, duty exemptions for exporters exist but an improvement in their administration and simplification of procedures leading to speedy processing by customs will help boost exports. Also, for small exporters who rely on duty drawbacks, delay in getting the drawback as well as in obtaining inputs from abroad are common. An improvement in this direction is also desirable. Fifth, it is important to note that China was welcoming of foreign investment for both domestic and foreign markets. Most of the incentivesÃ¢â¬â tax holidays, lower fees on land use, flexibility in the employment of labor etc. ,Ã¢â¬âwere available to all foreign investors. ventures, some extra incentives were provided. For export-oriented joint The lesson here is that Ã¢â¬â 15 fears of tariff-jumping type of foreign investment should not lead to erection of barriers. Instead, if the regime is to be tilted in favor of export-oriented foreign investments, it should be done through positive incentives. Imposition of barriers to foreign investment will only add noise to signals of openness that India has been sending. A final point concerns the importance of a Ã¢â¬Å"Hong KongÃ¢â¬ connection. In India's case, there are no geographic neighbors that are as economically dynamic as Hong Kong or Taiwan, Province of China. But through cultural ties, the most India can do is to attract investments from Indians in Hong Kong and Non Resident Indians (NRIs) elsewhere in the world. While this is obviously worth doing, India has to rely on a more diversified base of foreign investors. It may be argued that to meet the East Asian challenge, investors in the United States and Europe will be increasingly looking for sources of cheap labor. With its vast pool of cheap unskilled to middleMoreover, level skilled labor, India clearly fulfills this requirement. India's economic and political institutions are also familiar to western investors. What is needed is more open policies, transparency, and infrastructure. If this can be accomplished, India may well become the primary export base for the United States and European Community in the 21st century. Arvind Panagariya an Indian national, was a Principal Economist in the Bank's Trade Policy Division and is a Professor of Economics at the University of Maryland. He earned his PhD from Princeton. Ã¢â¬â 16 Direct foreign investment into China (billion dollars) Commitment 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 (first half) Cumulative, end 1991 5. 3 5. 6 6. 6 12. 0 14. 5 48. 9 Actual n. a. 3. 4 3. 5 4. 4 3. 4 20. 3 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Sources: China Statistics Yearbook 1990, 1991, Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations and Trade, China.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Comparative Essay Karl Marx and Max Weber Boring title SSCI 501 Ã¢â¬â Great Ideas: Classics of Social Theory October 1, 2013 German sociologists, Karl Marx and Max Weber, each both had theories about how capitalism evolved in society aswas well as what social inequality is. In this essay, I will explain the theories of these two sociologists in these areas and show how each had merit based on what we know today. O.K introduction but no real thesis.) My thesis (Aha!) for this paper is that capitalism breeds social inequality. Though social inequality can exist outside of capitalism, with capitalism social inequality is an inherent part of the system. Without inequality, there can be no capitalismÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦For it would be GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will for man to live out his Ã¢â¬Å"calling.Ã¢â¬ Phase Three, Ã¢â¬Å"Money is Good, God is doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter,OkayÃ¢â¬ which represents the complete absolution into the cCapitalistic state of mind. No longer does our primary concern lay with God, it lays solely on our ability to accumulate wealth. Each of these thinkers (Marx and Weber) had views on social inequality in addition to their theories on the existence of capitalism. It is much easier to decipher MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings about social inequality. Marx believed that any system which had one individual Ã¢â¬Å"reportingÃ¢â¬ to another individualsystem that had one individual Ã¢â¬Å"reportingÃ¢â¬ to gave the latter the most power in theiranother individual gave the latter the most power in his or her dynamic. Marx says, Ã¢â¬Å"Freeman and slave . . . eÃ¢â¬ ¦lord and serf . . . Ã¢â¬ ¦in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried an uninterrupted . . . dÃ¢â¬ ¦fight.htÃ¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ (McIntosh, 1997). In current world terms, Marx is telling us that when one person has power (whether that is physical, economic, educational or simply perceived) you naturally have a social class system based on inequality. One person is the one Ã¢â¬Å"in chargeÃ¢â¬ and the other would be the one who is receiving the orders. There can be no equality in a system where the members of the society do not perceive each other as equals. Weber believedShow MoreRelatedCompare and Contrast the Marxist and Weberian Theories of Social Class. Why Do You Think Marx Emphasises Relations of Production in the Formation of Classes Whilst Weber Suggests the Market and Consumption Are the Important Factors?1750 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCompare and contrast the Marxist and Weberian t heories of social class. Why do you think Marx emphasises relations of production in the formation of classes whilst Weber suggests the market and consumption are the important factors? 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